What are the Five Main Parts of an Airplane?

Airplanes have been around for nearly a century, with their most well-known role in the history of aviation being that of military transportation. But over the years, air travel has become much more than just a means of moving people and machines from one place to another: it’s an opportunity for adventure, discovery, and fun. 

Whether you love planes or are just curious about them, an airplane is an interesting subject that requires some understanding of how it works before you can really get into it. 

This article provides an overview of the five main parts of an airplane and their functions to help you better understand how these pieces work together. 

parts of an airplane

The Engine

The engine is the heart of any airplane and the source of the power that makes it fly. The engine used in most airplanes is a piston engine, which is a type of internal combustion engine. This means that it burns fuel in an enclosed combustion chamber to create pressure and heat, which then powers the pistons driving the air through the fan at high speed. 

Engines are typically located on the front of the airplane and are driven by a series of pistons that are connected to a crankshaft, which rotates and spins inside the case of the engine.

The cylinders inside this cylinder bank fire air into combustion chambers, with each cylinder being surrounded by a piston. The heat created from these rods causes fuel to be vaporized and ignited, resulting in a burst of power for your plane. 

airplane engine positions

The turbine at the center of the engine creates an axial force that is transferred via a shaft to propeller blades fixed on either side of it. These blades then rotate in order to produce thrust, which helps your plane move through the air. 

Most airplanes are powered by either jets or turboprops–which use different types of engines–and they produce between 10 and 100 horsepower each. The amount of power an engine produces is determined by how many cylinders it has and how many times per second they turn. 

The main job of an engine is to generate power and provide thrust for movement, but it also needs to be designed well so that it lasts for long periods without causing major problems like overheating or oil leaks.

types of landing gear

The Landing Gear

The landing gear is one of the most important parts of an airplane. It keeps the plane on the ground and prevents it from crashing. When you land, your landing gear will be lowered to allow the wheels to touch down right at the end of the runway, which prevents any damage to your aircraft. 

The landing gear is a retractable, horizontal surface that connects the airplane to the ground. It’s designed to guide the plane as it makes its descent; when it’s retracted, it creates more lift for takeoff and landing. The landing gear is mostly made of carbon fiber composite materials and springs to make sure it keeps up with the weight of the plane. 

The landing gear retracts during takeoff and landing to ensure smoother takeoffs and landings. It allows an airplane to create more lift at takeoffs and landings by increasing drag on the wings when they’re in their retracted position.

types of fuselage

The Fuselage

The fuselage is the main body of an airplane. It’s a long, cylindrical tube that contains the engines, passengers, cargo, flight controls, other internal components, as well as the fuel tanks. It includes the cockpit, which is located near the front of the fuselage.

This section provides structural support for the wings and tail sections and creates a giant hollow area around all three. Because it contains all these vital parts, it’s crucial to aircraft safety. 

The cockpit is also a component of a fuselage and often gets mistaken for a separate piece altogether because it can be detached from the rest of the plane during takeoff and landing without causing any serious damage. In fact, this compartment must pass certain tests to ensure that it’s safe while in flight before it can be detached so that passengers won’t have to deboard early due to safety concerns.

The fuselage is also responsible for carrying all the people in an airplane (the cabin) along with all their luggage and other items they need during their trip. 

types of wings

The Wings

The wings are what connect to the fuselage and provide support for flight. They are attached to the fuselage by means of a long spar that runs from wingtip to wingtip through both sections of each wing. 

Wings also provide critical aerodynamic support for aircraft stability during takeoff and landing by enhancing lift, reducing drag, providing directional stability, and changing surface area to help maintain lift for longer periods of time than would be possible without wings in certain positions or configurations. The wings of an airplane are the longest and thickest piece of all its parts.

The wings of an airplane are the primary way that it stays aloft. Wings have several things going on at once, including ailerons and elevators. Ailerons control the plane’s roll, or left/right turning motion, while elevators control the up/down motion.

types of empennage

The Empennage

The empennage is the rear part of the tail assembly of a fixed-wing aircraft. It includes horizontal and vertical stabilizers, which are also known as flight control surfaces. These surfaces keep the airplane stable during flight, as well as help it glide laterally and vertically. 

This section also includes other structures such as the airfoil cowlings and wingtips that play a crucial role in performance and safety. Other components of the aircraft empennage include the vertical stabilizer, rudder (a small yoke-shaped device that controls the angle of the aircraft’s nose), elevators (smaller yokes that control how much up or down your aircraft pitches when it moves), and rudders. 

These components are what give an airplane its ability to fly, along with its ability to steer in the desired direction.

A Final Word on the Five Main Parts of an Airplane

The five main parts of an airplane are the engine, landing gear, fuselage, wings, and empennage. Airplanes have many parts, but these are the five most important. All of these parts work together to make a plane fly and allow it to transport people and cargo safely

There are an incredible amount of different planes in the world, and it’s fun to learn about the technical aspects of all of these different machines. By learning more about airplanes, you can appreciate them both as a work of art and as a machine.